Know your building
  • Launching its Know Your Building campaign, FPA data reveals the huge financial impact of fires on businesses and services in the UK over a ten year period
  • Costs account for damage to buildings, interruption to business or services, loss of income, or damage to equipment
  • As part of the campaign the FPA is urging those responsible for business and service management to go “above and beyond” legal requirements with respect to fire protection

Data released today by the FPA has revealed the significant financial impact on businesses and key services caused by fires.

The analysis of 4,782 major UK fires between January 2009 and December 2019 where the financial loss was £100,000 or more revealed a mean average loss of £657,074 per incident. The analysis focuses on fires in buildings used by private and public sector organisations, and residential and mixed multiple occupancy shared ownership buildings.

Overall, loss values account for several areas, including damage to buildings (43% of the average value), interruption to business or services (18%), damage to contents (7%), damage to machinery or plant equipment (5%), loss of stock (5%) and loss of income or rent (2%).

Retail buildings were those most affected by large losses (15%), with 14% in industrial processing and manufacturing, 13% in accommodation buildings, 11% in pubs, bars and restaurants, 6% in the professional services sector, and 3% relating to education buildings.

Industrial processing and manufacturing buildings witnessed the largest overall financial impact through fires over the ten year period, with losses totalling £808m.

The findings were collated and analysed by RISCAuthority, which is administered by the FPA, and mark the launch of the FPA’s Know Your Building campaign – aimed at improving levels of knowledge among building owners and managers to enable them to improve their organisational resilience to fire.

Jonathan O’Neill, managing director of the FPA, said: 'These findings reveal the significant risk that fires pose not only to lives but also to livelihoods. It is not just the direct financial impact that organisations need to consider - the loss of critical assets and data, ability to supply critical services including housing, reduced working hours, sourcing replacement premises and materials, brand damage, loss of customers to competitors as well as the general stress and knock to staff morale is equally costly. These factors can jeopardise the survival of businesses and essential services, and the people that rely on them.

'Many organisations wrongly assume that the law is there to protect their assets in the event of fire, but this is not the case - once fire and rescue services [FRSs] have evacuated building occupants they are not obliged to prevent loss of a building and its contents. We are urging organisations to go above and beyond their legal requirements in order to ensure they are more resilient to fire. This involves having a sound knowledge and understanding of a building including how it is constructed, the fire protection systems that are required and the competency of individuals responsible for installing and maintaining them.'


Over half of all fires analysed (55%) were caused accidentally, but nearly a third were a result of arson (31%) – highlighting the vulnerability of buildings to factors beyond the control of those who manage them.

In 12% of cases, FRSs were impeded in their ability to put out fires – including poor vehicle access to the front of a building, and the absence of an on site water supply. In almost half of cases (47%) where there was an impedance, it was judged that improving FRS access to the building could have reduced the severity, and therefore the financial impact, of the fire.

Commenting on the causes of fire and fire damage, Mr O’Neill said: 'While fires are generally caused accidently, organisations don’t anticipate arson being such a large factor. We also know that in times of recession arson rates tend to increase markedly – highlighting the importance of having proper systems in place to mitigate fire risk.

'The number of cases where FRSs were prevented from carrying out their role properly is a major cause for concern. Aside from requiring good access to the front of a building and a reliable on site water supply, firefighters need to judge the ability of a building to withstand collapse – allowing them to enter it to tackle fire from the inside. Buildings that have been designed to contain and withstand fire, and that have fire suppression systems such as sprinklers in place, help the FRSs significantly - and this can mean the difference between a building being saved or not.

'We urge all organisations to ensure they have a robust fire strategy, with measures in place so that in the event of a fire the risk of entire building loss, and the financial and business impact this has, is reduced as far as possible. We have seen the lengths organisations have gone to make themselves COVID-19 secure, and fire protection requires the same level of attention as the risks are just as severe.'

The Know Your Building campaign was launched to coincide with the FIRE 2020 event, held virtually this year on 4 November. Several assets have been created to help organisations understand their fire risks and take steps to mitigate them, including:


Media enquiries:

Data methodology

The Large Loss Database is maintained and analysed by RISCAuthority, an organisation which is administered by the FPA. RISCAuthority manages the database on behalf of the UK’s largest insurers who provide the raw data. The analysis provided in this press release relates to 4,782 UK fires occurring between January 2009 and December 2019, all of which led to a loss of £100,000 or more.  

The financial figures cited relate only to the costs of loss paid by the insurer and exclude sums that might be reinsured, deductibles, reductions due to underinsurance, claims withdrawn, claims repudiated, or motor fire losses. Losses under £100,000 are not included.

About the FPA

The FPA is the UK's national fire safety organisation. It works to identify the dangers of fire and the means by which potential for loss is kept to a minimum.

Since 1946 it has attained an unrivalled reputation for quality of work and expertise in all aspects of fire including research, consultancy, training, membership, publications, risk surveying and auditing.  Its products and services are designed to assist fire, security and safety professionals achieve and maintain the very highest standards of fire safety management.

The FPA’s engineers, scientists and consultants have a vast knowledge of fire and risk prevention as well an in depth understanding of fire behaviour and the consequences of poor risk management. They work with research companies, government bodies, industry and the insurance community on projects of varying scale and complexity.

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About RISCAuthority

RISCAuthority is an annually funded research scheme supported by a significant group of UK insurers that conducts research in support of the development and dissemination of best practice on the protection of property and business.

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